December 31, 2007, 9:27 pm
Filed under: Life
Today is Aaron’s final treatment. We are about to start 2008 as a family that is leukemia free!
Here is a copy of a note that I wrote on facebook at Aaron’s two year anniversary this past Thanksgiving:
Two years ago, I was a junior in high school worried more about how difficult my school year would be. Two years ago, I was sitting at STA youth group listening to the Knowles family explain how their little daughter’s life was cut short because of cancer. Two years ago, I was thinking to myself how lucky I was that I was healthy, my family was healthy, and my friends were healthy.
Two years, It’s been two years.
Thanksgiving is supposed to be about family and friends, turkey and apple pie, Black Friday shopping and putting up Christmas decorations. My Thanksgiving that year did not include any of those things. Family and friends were replaced with immediate family, doctors, and nurses. Turkey and apple pie were replaced with endless Friendlies sundaes and Pizza Plus bought to dull the pain. Black Friday shopping and putting up Christmas decorations were replaced with a run to Walmart to buy a much needed PSP game and lots of medicine. Thanksgiving 2005 was full of tears.
November 23, 2005. We were supposed to go to New York to see the Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade. Instead, Adam and I headed off to Aunt Kristan’s, while Dad headed to the hospital to join Mom and Aaron. Thank you Jess and Mrs. Condon for trying to calm my fears on the phone that night.
November 24, 2005. Thanksgiving. By far, the worst day of my life. The only day of my life where I cried more than I smiled. That day I became addicted to Dunkachinos to dull the pain. Dad, thanks for being so strong as you told Adam and I the news. Kristan, thanks for not revealing anything until we got home and Dad could tell us. Security guards at CCMC, thanks for letting me and Adam go up before visiting hours. Walking into that room, I will never forget what Dad said, “Don’t cry, if you do it will upset him”. I couldn’t stand being in that room for very long at first. I couldn’t handle all of the wires, all of the IVs, all of the machines. I couldn’t handle your paleness, your utter helplessness. I couldn’t handle not being able to protect you like an older sister should.
Erika, you were the first person I called. I knew you could help. Thank you for listening patiently on the phone and consoling me like only another older sister in this situation could. Your support and help throughout this whole process has made such a difference in my life. Thank you also to the rest of the Hilborns. You’ve shared your journey and experiences with us, as we have shared with you. Thank you for your endless encouragement and comfort. Thanks to Team in Training for all that you do. Eventually, I hope to join your ranks.
Aunt Jana, Uncle Dan, Jake, and Matt, thank you for cutting your vacation short to come help us. Aunt Julie, oh how I can ever repay you for how much you have helped my family on numerous occasions- that first week, Boston, and all of the other times you rushed to our family’s rescue. You were a loving comfort and when you left that first week, Mom and I remarked about how worried we were about what would happen next.
Thanksgiving 2005 came and went. I spent the whole weekend rocking back and forth in the rocking chair by your bedside. Tears were rolling down my cheeks as we drove away from the hospital. For a whole week, I only slept when I napped in your room. I couldn’t handle being away from you, worried that something would happen if I wasn’t there. Then, back to school.
Mrs. Shand, thanks for helping my whole entire family through this process. I also knew that I could come to your office and you would be there to welcome me with open arms. Madame, how can I thank you enough. You were the first teacher to know. You helped explain to the class what happened. You gave me breaks on homework and quizzes. You were always there if I needed someone to talk to of if I needed some place to cry. Mrs. Hostetter, thanks for always making sure that I was keeping up with my work. Thanks for letting me just sit in your room alone and think sometimes. Thanks for listening.
Sarah, thanks for always being able to keep my mind off of what was going one, if only for a few seconds. Thank you for being patient with me when I got upset or could not hang out for weeks on end. Jess, thanks for all of the food you and your mom brought me. Thanks for the Cosi lunches that would brighten up my day. Thank you both for being such great friends.
Erin, thank you for always being a comfort before school, during Latin, and any time that I needed you. I always knew that I could come to you and just cry. Thanks for hugging me when you could just tell that I needed it. Thanks for getting my homework for me when I missed school. Thanks for talking to other when you knew that I would not be able to do so myself. Thank you for being such a great friend
Kolby, I always knew that I could count on you to make me feel better. You don’t know this, but I loved when you and Max came to the hospital. It was the only then that Aaron always smiled.
For a whole year, CCMC MS8 became my second home, or rather my first home. I spent more time there than I would have ever imagined possible. The doctors, nurses, other patients, and their parents became my whole family. TO all of the friends I made- Laura, Lisa, Tristan, Cayden, Ben, Adrian, and many others – thanks for allowing me into your rooms to hang out and just have some good old fun. To all of the parents who became my surrogate parents, thanks for always giving me a comforting hug.
My afternoons spent at the hospital after school and my weekends spent there were my most favorite times of the day. In the face of all of the sadness, there was hope every where. Sitting in the hospital was the only way that I could focus on anything. I will always remember the comfort, Aaron, that you brought me as a I studied for midterms, AP exams, and finals by your bedside. I loved just sitting in the rocking chair doing sudoku while you slept. You gave me the comfort that I hope I gave you.
To all of the doctors that I stared down and questioned, thank you for explaining everything to my family. Dr. Isakoff, Dr. Gillan, Dr. Hagstrom, Dr. Parik, and Dr. Altman, along with all of the nurses, thank you for saving my brother’s life. I owe you the world.
June 11, 2006. We thought we had come so far. You were still very sick, but getting better every day. Thank you to the staff at Fenway Park, thank you David Ortiz for hitting the ball that saved his life, thank you to the doctors at Children’s Hospital. Grandma, thanks for taking me and Adam out to dinner every night for 5 days. It gave me something to look forward to. I never would have thought that picking out what to eat from a resturant menu would comfort me. Thank you to all of my friends and teachers who were right there to comfort me. Hon, I’m sorry that it was your worst birthday ever. I hope that the one that you’ve had since has been much better.
Thank you to The Hole in the Wall Gang Camp for bringing my real brother back to me and for giving Adam a chance to just have fun without worries. You have made such a difference in my life. Going to camp makes me feel at home. I hope to give back to you what you have given to me and my family. Thank you for sending us to Hollywood. Charlie Ebersol, thank you for sharing your stories with us. Teddy is in our minds everyday, especially for me when I look at Aaron and realized just how lucky I am. Make-A-Wish, thank you for an amazing All Star game wish. It was just the type of vacation that our family needed.
Two years. More than that now. You’re done! You’re really done! Thank you for being so strong, thank you for enduring the pain, thank you for taking all of those pills, thank you for drinking the yellow paint meds! Thank you for being luckier than some.
I will always remember the pain and hurt that my family suffered two years ago. Two years ago when our life became encircled in on acronym- ALL.
For all of those who have not been as lucky as my family, especially Timmy, Taylor, Jacob, and now Adrian. We miss you and we think about you every day. You and the rest of those who have been affected are the reasons why much more research needs to be done. We need to create new protocols that can help save the lives of other children.
Two years. I am now a freshman in college. Living up in Boston, in a dorm room with new friends and new classes. I am living a life that is not centered around cancer 24/7. It is a peaceful life, it is a relief from the life that I have become used to over the past two years. To my friends here, Ciara, Kelly and Victoria, who have heard my story and have been there to offer support when I just needed to talk, thank you. For those who have yet to year my story, thanks for not questioning. I like my new life. I like not having to think about what happened every day. I like having weeks on end when I do not cry myself to sleep.
Often, however, I am reminded about what happened those two years ago. My life was changed forever that Thanksgiving 2005. Thanks for all of you who have stood by my side and supported me. Thanks to my family for staying so strong. And of course, thank you Aaron. You have made such an impact on my life and I love you so much!
SCHIP- State Children’s Health Insurance Program
Passed, finally, by President Bush who vetoed it twice already.
Take a look at this video for Jon Stewart’s take on the first veto of the SCHIP bill.
This new version of the SCHIP bill only supports those already under the current program- children who’s families’ wealth doesn’t qualify them for Medicaid but doesn’t allow them enough money to pay for private insurance. The bill extend the financial support of the program through 2009.
Originally, the Democrats had tried to pass the SCHIP bill with a new program that would allow for additional children to be placed into the program- an $35 billion dollar increase in the program financed by an increase in the tobacco tax. These changes in the SCHIP program are what Bush originally vetoed.
The version that Bush has now passed- in keeping with the status quo – has been hailed by Bush administration as a way to provide healthcare for children while not progressing the country into a move towards socialized healthcare.
However, the Democrats, and I myself, have a different take on Bush’s recent signing. By passing a bill that stays with the status quo, and effectively saying that putting more children under a program that would be financed through an increase in the tobacco tax is a move towards socialized healthcare, which is unacceptable, should significantly hurt the Republicans in the polls- should this news story gain the reporting that it deserves. I’ve said this many times, but I’ll say it again: how can a “family values” Republican president justify not extending a children’s healthcare program because it would lead America towards socialized healthcare. You are increasing the tobacco tax for heaven’s sake, to pay for healthcare for children who cannot afford it. Children! I don’t know what Bush is thinking, but to me, providing children with the ability to be healthy is a necessary thing in the advanced society that we are living in today. It seems unfair that these children should not be able to get the type of medical care that they need simply because doing so would possibly put America on the path towards socialized medicine (ha, probably not).
The extent to which Bush’s lack of extension will hurt the Republicans in the 2008 Election will only be seen by how the media decides to cover this bill. Also, the fact that many Republicans in Congress actually supported expanded the SCHIP program and voted for the expansions that were vetoed by President Bush, does not really help support any claims that Bush’s lack of expansion will heavily influence the election. I think that the most that Bush’s signature on this bill could do in the way of harm would only be to hurt Bush’s sagging approval rating. But still, because of all of the hype surrounding the upcoming Iowa caucuses and New Hampshire primary, this bill is not going to get the type of coverage by the media that it needs in order to have a strong influence against the Republicans and the Bush administration.
Students for Barack Obama
If you haven’t realized by now, I am a huge Barack Obama supporter. A week from today, I will be falling asleep after my second day as an intern with Obama for America in Nashua, New Hampshire. I am working for one week- January 2-9- right through the Iowa Caucus (January 3rd) and the New Hampshire Primary (January 8th).
Watch this video it is amazing and it perfectly describes how Barack Obama is the candidate for my generation. Barack Obama is a call for change – “Change that we can believe in” – change that America needs right here and right now.
Time Person of the Year
Time’s Person of the Year: Vladimir Putin
My choice for Person of the Year, well there would be many. Al Gore and the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change would top the list. They won a Nobel Peace Prize working on a major issue that will affect the world for the rest of time, does that not scream Person of the Year? Maybe the monks in Burma. Standing up for democracy in a military dictatorship when no one else in the world will help, does that not qualify for Person of the Year? Maybe we should stick to the United States. Nancy Pelosi, first female Speaker of the House? Well then again, maybe not as she and her Democratic partners did not do as much they had originally planned- that could have been because they lacked a significant majority in the House and Senate to override a Bush veto and they did not have enough seats in the Senate to end a Senate filibuster- but that is story for another blog.
As we have seen, Time’s choices for Person of the Year have gone down hill recently. Think 2006- “You”. Hmm, yes, You are the Person of the Year. That is the best way to say that we have no freaking idea and are completely indecisive about who should be named Person of the Year.
And now, 2007′s Putin. Of course, let’s name Russia’s new dictator Person of the Year, why didn’t I think of that first? Maybe because to me, Person of the Year is a distinction, or at least it has become one, that shows that a person has affected the world in a positive way. Well, Time sees things differently, “Time’s Person of the Year is not and never has been an honor. It is not an endorsement. It is not a popularity contest. At its best, it is a clear-eyed recognition of the world as it is and of the most powerful individuals and forces shaping the world- for better of for worse”. This is the inherent problem with Time’s recognition of Putin as Person of the Year. How can a magazine as upstanding as Time have the guts to declare that Putin, who is hugely becoming a dictator in his own country, can be considered a Person of the Year. Putin is a dictator, no ifs ands or buts about that. But I guess, because the Person of the Year does not need to be good, as long as he or she is shaping the world for better or worse, it’s ok.
I guess what only disappoints me further than this is, why if under these circumstances, Osama bin Laden was not declared Person of the Year in 2001? Now that is a question that the Time editors may have a hard question answering. But then again, I guess Rudy Giuliani was a good pick for 2001. Or maybe Time should have picked President Bush, the people of New York City, or better yet the People of the United States. Come on Time, Putin is a very influential man, but seriously, find some better People of the Year. Work less at getting your own name in the news with a controversial pick, and work towards picking people how have had an amazing positive influence on the world and who can be good role models for all generations.
Benazir Bhutto Assassination
If you have been living under a rock, or maybe haven’t had a chance to watch the nightly news yet, you probably have yet to hear that Benazir Bhutto, the leaders of the Pakistani People’s Party (PPP) was assassinated earlier today.
Why is this important?
Well first of all, in my own personal life this event hold a high significance. This past fall, as I entered into my first political science class- Introduction to Comparative Politics with Sophia Perez- I learned that I had to read London’s Financial Times newspaper. Upon opening up the first newspaper, I began on a journey that involved exploring the up and coming problems and concerns in Pakistani politics. After reading the newspaper throughout all of the fall semester, I began to become surprisingly attached to what was going on in Pakistan. One can be sure, the events in Pakistan over the past couple of months- Bhutto’s return, Musharraf’s election, Sharif’s return, problems over Sharif participating in the upcoming elections, upcoming Parliamentary elections, the State of Emergency, Musharraf stepping down as Chief of the Army, etc- have been heavily covered in newspapers throughout the world. Pakistan became my little baby. My developing democratic country to study and learn from. Bhutto’s death affected me like a little girl watching her baby fish die in her growing aquarium. It will be interesting to see how Bhutto’s assassination will affect, and it will majorly affect, Pakistani parliamentary elections and Pakistani politics in general.
Second, Bhutto’s assassination will have a major influence on Pakistani politics. Parliamentary elections in Pakistan are to be held on January 8th, 2008. The major players in this election were to be Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif. This election was supposed to determine whether or not Pakistan was truly on the path to democracy. Now, one of the major players is dead- not just died out of the blue, but assassinated. Assassination- the action that has a major effect on how well democracy will work. Assassination does not bode well for a developing democracy, especially where the person assassinated was supposed to help in a power sharing agreement with Musharraf, who was slowly loosing support with the Pakistani people. What happens next? Only the January 8th elections will tell…
Finally, Bhutto’s death influences how the United States will continue to deal with her Pakistani ally. For CNN’s view on this issue, check out this link. The United States supports Pakistan as Pakistan support the United States in the War on Terror. This relationship has had some rocky points. Most notably- the relationship is strained because Pakistan is a developing democracy, not a true democracy (i.e. United States / Britain style). Musharraf’s personal election was a sign that the country was heading towards a more acceptable style of democracy, instead of rule by a military dictator. When Musharraf declared a State of Emergency, arrested dissidents, and threw out the Supreme Court, Pakistan’s relationship to the United States was tested. How can the United States support a country that cares little about democracy? Why? Because Pakistan is an ally with the War on Terror. Therefore, this relationship is way more important to war-hungry Bush than a developing democratic country. And the Bush administration’s latest response to Benazir Bhutto’s death… “This latest tragedy is likely to reinforce beliefs that Pakistan is a dangerous, messy place and potentially very unstable and fragile and that they need to cline to Musharraf even more than they did in the past…. The weight of the administration is still convinced that Musharraf is a helpful rather than a harmful figure” (Daniel Markey). Pakistan is still dangerous and unstable, without a doubt, and maybe Musharraf is a helpful figure for the United States. Maybe he is helping Pakistan transition into democracy. However, how can the Bush administration be sure that being an ally with Musharraf and Pakistan is the right idea? Pakistan is still developing. It’s not fully there and it still has the possibility of reversing it’s pathway to democracy. Everything can change in an instant. Does the United States want to be known for supporting anti-democratic countries that a just allied with the US’s beliefs? Well, obviously the United States does not care that much. For the Bush administration, in the War on Terror, all that matters is that we have allies, no matter if they are democratic themselves or not. And remember, we’ve done that in the past, supporting the Shah of Iran.
Benazir Bhutto’s death has major ramifications personally, within Pakistani politics, and with United States relations. It will be interesting to see where this assassination will take us…
"The Closing of the American Mind" by: Evan Thomas
Evan Thomas recently published an article in Newsweek entitled “The Closing of the American Mind”.
According to Thomas, the partisanship found throughout American politics is based not on Republican vs. Democrat spectrums, but rather on the differences between political junkies and everyone else.
As a self-proclaimed political junkie, I agree. There is a problem in the American system- people care more about sports, video games, and plain TV shows than about politics. People do not pay full attention to politics. This apathy comes from many sources: a lack of time, a lack of information, a negative view of politics, an idea that political life does not affect one personally, other things to do, or a view that one is satisfied with the status quo (highly unlikely now).
Our political system is now being run by those who give a damn about politics. Following the Iron Law of Oligarchy, our federal government is now being controlled willingly by elites- those who gained the votes of their fellow elites, the only people truly caring enough to vote in elections.
This election has been a call for change in America. Not only for change in the Iraq War, American foreign affairs, healthcare, Social Security, immigration, etc., etc, but also for change in the partisanship that is plaguing American politics. However, as Thomas notes, the only way for this to be possible, is for more people to get involved in the political process. We need this partisanship between the political junkies and everyone else to end and for everyone to become involved and knowledgeable about politics. So America, get up, stop playing XBox 360 and register to vote!
New Changes in for the Candidates
We are right on the heals of the Iowa caucus. For weeks, the polls have shown that John McCain has been basically going no where. However, McCain has just kick-started his new three-day campaign push. My bet, this final big push by McCain, in a field where all of the major Republican candidates have been fighting (think Romney dropping in New Hampshire, Giuliani stalling, and Huckabee’s rise), will indefinitely help the faultering McCain camapign. I cannot wait to see how McCain will do in Iowa. His position in the Iraq war is polarizing and his age is also a key issue that has not fully been discussed. If McCain pulls through to at least place well in Iowa, as it seems very unlikely that he will take first- that’s Huckabee’s place, McCain seems poised to do well in New Hampshire. A McCain success this late in the the primary season could seriously shake up the Republican nomination. It will be interesting to see how McCain’s three-day intense campaign in Iowa will affect the 2008 Presidential Nomination campaign
Christmas and Campaigning
I hope that everyone has had an amazing Christmas like I did. For those out in Iowa, New Hampshire, and South Carolina, yesterday was a day without the endless phone calls from campaigns, door knocks from canvassers, and mail from candidates. For the 2008 Presidential Candidates, yesterday was a day that they had the chance, the ability, and the time to spend relaxing with their families.
Well everyone, Christmas is officially over. Gone are the Twelve Days of Christmas, welcome is the one day Christmas Day event. Our Christmas tree is down. Yes, I saw it fully decorated for about a week! In Iowa, New Hampshire, and South Carolina, the campaigners are back phone-banking, the canvassers are out knocking on doors, the mail is overflowing with campaign literature, and the candidates are back on the campaign trail.
The Iowa caucus is just over a week away. The candidates are preparing for the final stretch before the big three (Iowa, New Hampshire, and South Carolina). That means all the stops are pulled out. This people is campaigning at it’s peak. From now through the end of the major primaries (at least through Super Tuesday, depending on how much variance there is between the major three), every move will be calculated, every word will be tested and recorded, all eyes will be on the candidates.
We’re gearing up for one of the most exciting races ever seen. The field is wide open. There can be no frontrunners (as we have seen with Dean in 2004) and it will be interesting to see what happens next. So fasten your seat belts and get ready to go!
Intro to Compare: Midterm-Final
December 17, 2007, 6:07 pm
Filed under: Classes
Political Development Theories
Political Culture- attitudes about role in government, governments in general, and democracy
Britain- compromise on the part of elites
- Expanded the franchise- willing to give into demands
- Consensual culture
- Lost with Thatcher in 1970s
France- divided into camps that don’t trust each other
- Conflictual culture
- Reflects history- French Revolution / Paris Commune- French elites crushed working class
- Trust bureaucrats over politicians
Class Analysis- Barrington Moore- the way conflict between classes emerge and play out
Britain- conflict between aristocracy and monarchy
- Wool- land intensive
- Enclosure Acts- kick peasants off the land- monarchy does not want this
- Glorious Revolution- peasants are big losers, thrown off land and forced into industrialized cities
- Peasants are the democratic force always fighting for more rights
- Wine- labor intensive = wanted to keep peasants on the land
- Feudal dues were increased = peasants revolt
- French Revolution- Middle Class / Peasants vs. Aristocracy / Clergy
- Peasants Win = land goes to them
- Remain a rural society that doesn’t have a great push for democracy because peasants are big winners
Germany- elites challenge traditional feudal political system
- Elite modernized economically without political change
- Prussian aristocracy
- Grain- labor intensive so wanted to avoid a revolution
- Put high tariffs to make industrialists happy
- Created a welfare state to make the workers happy
Sectors- conflicts between sectors of economy
Britain- agriculture sector vs. industrial sector
- Ag. didn’t want to increase franchise because a call for cheaper food would hurt the ag. sector
- Industry wanted to increase franchise because lower food prices would mean that they could decrease wages and make more money
- Gradually increase franchise (reform acts)
- Wanted laws to protect farmer and small shopkeepers
- Wanted to slow industrialization so that industry would not become a major power because that would increase competition
- Kept the industrial class from developing
- Missing the force to promote democracy
- Marriage of Iron and Rye- conflict between agriculture and industry
- Kept tariffs on food = ag. happy
- Put tariffs on industry = industry happy because there is not strong foreign competition
- Can increase food prices because industrialists can afford to pay higher wages so that workers can buy more expensive food
- Within industry- export-oriented vs. import-oriented
- Modern- chemical / wanted government to abide by Versailles Treaty (ended WWI) because it was competitive and sold abroad / supported SPD govt. and small coalition parties
- Traditional- steel / didn’t want government to abide by Versailles Treaty because wanted to keep Germany remilitarizing / supported Nationalist parties
- Support from chemical industry helped Weimar Republic survive for as long as it did
Timing of Development- Gershencrown- the later you develop, the less likely you are do be democratic / when a class needs protection it is not going to challenge an authoritarian state
- Developed slowly without competition = democratic
France- too early to realize that they were late
- Small-scale industrialization
- Government protected farmers and small shopkeepers = created laws that delayed industrialization
- Marriage of Iron and Rye
- Industry was late and needed protection
- Led to tendency to favor authoritarian leaders who would offer this protection (Hitler)
Failures of Democracy- democracy brought down by military coups
Ethnic Reasons- faction of ruling military dominated by one ethnic group
Economic Reversal (1970s)- stagnation and contraction because of oil crisis and cheap credit
Colonial remainders hurt developing, former colonies:
Borders- cross-cut ethnic groups / colonial power favored 1 ethnic group
Ethnic rivalry- because of colonial favoritism
State structures- new systems that resemble that of old colonial power
- State-run economy
- Bureaucracies rule from the top
- Developed to supply raw materials to colonial powers
- Highly specialized
Dependency Theory- Latin America
- Economic structures set country up for economic and political failure
- Highly specialized economies- favor foreign capital and investors
- Late developer- specialized in areas where there is foreign investment
- WWI economy collapse- nation can’t just develop trade, need to develop their own economies
Export Basics / Import complex-
- Theory of Unequal Exchange- price over time of exports falls in relation to the value-added imports
Import Substitution- need to start producing what you import
- Used tariffs
- Didn’t work because when governments do this, they need to import technology
- Still depended on traditional exports
- Dual economies = inequality
Super-exploitation of Labor- still needed foreign capital
Washington Consensus Macroeconomic Policies-
- Set policies to keep foreign investors
- Made best terms for creditors
- Place payment of foreign debt above all else
Pathways from Periphery-
- Can get from periphery to core
- Failures of Africa / Latin America vs. successes of Asia
Ideology of Dependency Theory-
- Put blame on other countries
- Blame international economy, richer countries
- Wrong culture = fails
- Latin America- Iberian Culture of hierarchy, mysticism, patronage, look to elites to give out favors
- But then why do periods of democracy exist?
ISI is the Problem-
- Labor becomes too strong / can’t get capital = leads to authoritarian regimes
- Asian countries
- Produce exports with higher value-added
Strong States vs. Weak States-
- Latin America- weak states
- Asia- strong states
Distributions of Land-
- Asia- ISI and export promotion where equal domestic wealth
- Redistributed land = more equality in wealth
- Allowed for domestic market / can develop domestically
Bresser-Periera: New Developmentalism-
- Asia never did Washington Consensus
- Appreciation of Latin American currencies because of Washington Consensus = encourages consumption and less competitive industry
Transitions to Democracy
Causes- crisis in old regime
Ideological Weaknesses- need to justify themselves = need to appeal to national interests, but they still favor international investors
Economic crisis- 1970s
- External defeats- military government defeated militarily
- Argentina- Faulklands War- defeated by Britain
- Greece- Greek military government wanted to help Cyprus but defeated
- Portugal- tried to hold onto African colonies but military officers staged a coup
- Eastern Europe- Poland’s solidarity movement- demonstration effect, Sinatra Doctrine- USSR does not want to intervene
- EU- businesses and multinationals want to invest in countries with EU membership
- Economic sanctions- lead to economic pain, worked in South Africa
- Russians did not stop solidarity
- French Revolution- republican government is possible
- Portugal- change with little violence (War of the Carnations) / Spain- when Franco died, regime negotiated transition with opposition
Elite Dominated? / Social Movement?-
- Elite led
- South Africa- ANC and reformist sects negotiated
- Key elites control resources
Structural Factors? / Chess Game?
- Structure- culture, level of development / democracy needs to come out of a broad base consensus among the population
- Chess game- leaders make calculations about what will happen if they give up authoritarian government / democracy needs key players who decide that it is in their best interests to transition
Alternations in Power- stability
- Poor- distribution conflict
- Rich- easier to compromise
Outcome of First Election-
- Better if it is won by forces that are close to segments of power that supported the former authoritarian regime
- Problem- Eastern Europe- first elections won by anti-communists
- Need to build up trust that democracy does not mean dictatorship by the opposition
- Parliamentary- forces the new democratic government to continue working for compromise / Spain, Greece / leads to a smoother transition
- Presidential- government can rule without compromise / Portugal, Poland, Russia- semi-presidential
- Electoral system- everyone needs to feel secure
- Consociationalism- constitution designed to give access to different groups / Lebanon, Northern Ireland
Sequence of Economic and Political Reforms-
- Put economic reforms off until the political system is consolidated?
- Do economic and political reforms at the same time?- shock therapy
- Ease social dislocations
- Can help new democratic system provide better transitions
- Helps democracy build legitimacy
That’s it for now… I won’t bore you with current events around the world, but that’s on the final too. Last final- I’m almost there!
Dante’s Hell: Midterm to Final- Canto XVIII to Canto XXXIV
December 14, 2007, 11:58 pm
Filed under: Classes
If you have gotten bored of PO101 notes already, here’s something to spice it up. Nothing political (at least, not really), The Inferno of Dante!
Canto XIX: Simoniacs- burning in holes, upside down
- Like San Giovanni baptistry- all Florentines baptized there / servants of state had to swear an oath there – civic and spiritual unity
- D says he broke on hold b/c someone was drowning
- Greek- baptizeim- to drown
- Baptism- idea: drown to be born all over again as a new person
- Or… breaking an oath- idea that you can break a vow in favor of a higher one – Dante’s case is higher than it used to be = forced to put violent hands on sacred
Canto XX: Diviners- heads turned around
- Idea that it is perverse to predict how divine providences works will free will
- Sexual imagery- souls can’t see their sex
Cantos XXI-XXII: Barratry- boil in pitch
- Unbalanced similie: comparison to great Venetian arsenal where they built and refitted ships – like Dante’s journey by sea
- Military imagery- Malacoda acts like a commander calling his troops, Dante associates moment with Battle of Caprona where losers (not Florence) came out under ceasefire
- Speed of fright
- Navarresse- tells whole life story to buy time / V plays into this by asking if there are any Italians / seizes the moment and escapes
Canto XXIII: Hypocrites- lead-laden cloaks
- Mouse and Frog fable- D and V are mouse, Malacoda is frog
- Virgil as mother- picks up Dante and takes him to saftey
- Caiphus- extra contrapasso- crucified
- Everything is hypocritical
Cantos XXIV-XXV: Thieves- snakes
- Better than Lucan and Ovid
- Vanni Fucci tells Dante of White Guelph defeat / curses God
- Metamorphosis- changed form (soul) and matter (body)
- D let pen run wild, will now hold back (he also said something similar to this in Canto XIX with the Simoniacs)
Cantos XXVI-XXVII: False Counselors- flames
- Theme: you can’t got it alone- seen in transition, seen in what Ulysses did
- Peasant farmer- looks down to where he harvests and plows (left out ideas of sowing seed)
- Elijah taken up to heaven in firery chariot- similie from point of view of Elisha (one who avenged with bears)- Dante is like Elisha, Beatrice is like Elijah
- Flame hides sinner- each sinner is a thief but they hid it / fraudulent council-steal truth- flames steal sinners / sinner wrapped up in flame like in literature where truth is wrapped up in envelope called allegory
- Ulysses- Trojan horse, got Achilles into the war, stole Palladium / final voyage in malo because only took into account sensual (not spiritual) / uses language of hypocrite to explain how crew was so willing to follow him / sailed SE, past pillars of Hercules / shipwrecked as it pleased another (God), comparable to Paul’s 1st Letter to Timothy- those who abjure their faith are shipwrecked
- Sounds from flames- human speech? flame speech?
- Sicilian bull- created as a torture chamber, 1st used against its creator
- Guido da Montefletro- became a Franciscan friar to make amends, gave false advice to Pope Boniface VIII b/c Boniface said that he would be absolved, wasn’t = Hell
Canto XXVIII: Schismatics- all cut up
- 1st mention of “contrapasso”- law of retribution / derived from St. Thomas Acquinus- justice meated out with respect to community as well as the individual
Canto XXXI: Transition to 9th Circle of Betrayers
- Virgil’s tongue compared to Achilles’ spear- spear: inflict wound and cure it, tongue- chide Dante and apply cure
- Giants- rebelled against Heaven and were defeated, size has to do with enormity of sin / walls cover giants to the waist- like aprons- like Adam and Eve
Cantos XXXII-XXXIV: Betrayers- frozen
- Place where all the weight of the universe is- center of Earth is heaviest / St. Augustine- weight of evil weighs you down (weight of love weighs you up)
- Dante is fearless with what he chooses to put in speech
- Hell-mouth idea- eating / on top of / traitors are the worst / 9th circle- place on top of which all else leans / verbs in reflexive- self-invovlement in action
- Caina- betrayers of kin
- Antemora- betrayers of country/party
- Ptolemea- betrayers of guests
- Judecca- betrayers of benefactors
- Ugolino and Ruggeri- nature of eating is sometimes unspeakable / choice of how to eat, how to survive / bestial sign- sign that signifies that an act of eating is bestial / tells story to get more vengeance on Ruggeri
- Ugolino- doesn’t have a clue about his kids, doesn’t know what dream means, didn’t know how to accept sacrificial gesture from kids / truth from mouths of kids- did this b/c they thought he was hungry (Ugolino’s idea), did this b/c they recognized that he was spiritually hungry (Dante’s idea) / Jeremiah- glosses Ugolino’s entire story
- Choice in eating- cannibalism: eat each other, Dante believes we do this all the time vs. eucharist: entering into a convenant with each other to end cycle of blood vengeance- always victims, always scapegoats
- Souls in ice like unpure ice with straw
- Satan- anti-king, anti-divinity, anti-trinity, anti-holy spirit, arms as anti-cross
- Dante’s struggle for life or death here- like Christ’s struggle on Holy Saturday- he overcomes and reigns alive
- 3 sinners- center in greatest pain, balance of power between secular (HRE) and sacred (Pope)
- Leaving hell- inversions, like Israel exiting from Egypt, climbing on Satan- tired, real conflict between life and death
- Come out and see stars, “stelle” ends all 3 poems
Canto XVIII: Seducers and Panderers
- Ciaccimoco- sold sister to noble
- Jason- abandoned Madea after she helped him get the golden fleece
Canto XVIII: Flatterers
Canto XIX: Simoniacs
- Pope Nicholas III- extended papal control / shameless nepotism / predicts that Pope Boniface VIII (elected after Celestine V abdicated) and Pope Clement V (moved Papal See to Avignon) will join him here
Canto XX: Diviners
- Tiresias- male to female to male
- Manto- fortune teller
Cantos XXI-XXII: Barrators
- Navarresse- tells whole life story and admits crime (all to buy time), jumps off fork into pitch
Canto XXIII: Hypocrites
- Catalano, Loderingo- Florence podesta, betrayed Ghibellines, burned down Gardingo district
- Ciaphus- high priest, advised council of chief priests and pharisses to kill Jesus
Cantos XXIV-XXV: Thieves
- Vanni Fucci- stole holy objects and didn’t confess when another was accused of the crime, gets back at Dante by announcing White Guelph defeat in 1301
Cantos XXVI-XXVII: False counselors
- Ulysses (and Diomedes)- Trojan horse, lured Achilles into war, stole Palladium, final voyage- just sensual reasons (not spiritual), shipwrecked
- Guido da Montefeltra- sly military leader to Franciscan Friar, Boniface VIII asks him for advice (he will absolve him) and he gives Pope false counsel
Canto XXVIII: Schismatics
- Mohammed and Ali- Muslim usurpers, religious divisiveness
- Bertran de Born- poet, rift between King Henry II of England and his son, Prince Henry
Cantos XXIX-XXX: Falsifiers
- Geri del Bello- doesn’t want to speak to Dante because no one has avenged his murder
- Master Adam- falsifier of coins, made Florins with only 21/24 carats of gold
- Sinon the Greek- liar, lied to get Trojan horse into Troy
Cantos XXXI-XXXIV: Betrayers
- Bocca degli Abati- betrayer of country/party, Dante kicks him, Montaperti- Florentine Guelphs defeated by Ghibellines, he pretended to fight with Guelphs, but betrayed them = Guelph defeat
- Ugolino and Ruggieri- betrayers of country/party, Ugoline betrays Pisa, Ruggieri locks him and sons up in tower
- Fra Alberigo- betrayer of guests, body in Hell but alive on Earth, pretended that altercation with Manfred was forgotten, killed him at a meal
- Satan- betrayer of benefactors, rebelled against God, 3 faces and wings
- Brutus and Cassius- betrayers of benefactors, killed Julius Caesar- world’s supreme secular leader
- Judas- betrayer of benefactors, betrayed Jesus
No more review notes for now, but look out for some Intro to Comparative Politics notes soon!